Product Fact Sheets for Health Practitioners
The following information outlines evidence from scientific research on all the nutrients used as ingredients in our products and, as such, is intended only for use by qualified healthcare professionals.
All our ingredients have been linked to specific health benefits in widely recognised, peer-received medical and research studies, details of which are provided. In many cases, our ingredients are authorised by the European Union in their register of food health and nutrition claims.
Our guide below provides the health properties of all the ingredients used in our products, with links to further evidence and studies.
Ingredient list & evidence
Joint Care Supplement
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)
Alpha Lipoic Acid is naturally present in the human body, as an essential co-factor for energy production, and is also recognised as a potent anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger.
A recent review of Alpha Lipoic Acid’s multiple functions and potential benefits concluded that it is a “potentially highly effective therapeutic agent for many conditions related with oxidative damage”.
Bioperine (Black Pepper Extract)
Piperine, the active ingredient in Bioperine is commonly used to increase absorption of various nutrients, including Curcumin, as evidenced in extensive clinical studies.
Several additional health benefits are also linked with Piperine, such as insulin resistance and anti-inflammatory benefits, especially in chronic diseases.
Boron has been proven, as outlined by Integrative Medicine journal, to be an important trace mineral because it is essential for the growth and maintenance of bones, beneficially impacts the body’s use of vitamin D, boosts magnesium absorption, reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers and raises levels of antioxidant enzymes.
In a 2017 pilot study of 80 patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Boron was found to be a useful adjuvant therapy, demonstrating significantly improved clinical scores and reduced anti-inflammatory markers, compared to a placebo.
According to an article by Versus Arthritis, Boswellia Serrata can prevent the production of inflammatory substances in the joints, with four randomised controlled trials suggesting it might have some beneficial effects in treating patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
In 2018, a meta-analysis of studies assessing the efficacy of dietary supplements in Osteoarthritis highlighted Boswellia Serrata, as well as Curcumin, as offering large and clinically important benefits, particularly in the short term.
Calcium contributes to the maintenance of normal bones, normal muscle function and normal energy-yielding metabolism as recognised by the European Commission.
Osteoporosis is a common complication of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), highlighted in a 2016 study, where the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in patients with RA than healthy controls. The study also found that routine supplementation of calcium and vitamin D decreased the risk of bone mineral density (BMD) loss, and concluded that it should be recommended for all patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Coenzyme Q10 is a potent anti-oxidant compound naturally present in the body, that can be depleted in certain conditions.
In a 2020 systematic review of CoQ10 supplementation on oxidative stress, CoQ10 was shown to significantly increase key antioxidant enzymes and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), as well as reduce MDA, a key marker of oxidative stress.
In Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) specifically, a randomized controlled trial found that CoQ10 supplementation resulted in significant reductions in pro-inflammatory mediators and markers of oxidative stress.
Copper is an essential trace element and a transition metal needed as a co-factor for many anti-oxidant enzymes, but also plays a significant role in iron metabolism, anti-oxidant defense, and immunity, to name a few.
According to the European Commission’s authorised claims, Copper supports maintenance of normal connective tissues, contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism and to normal iron transport in the body.
Curcumin / Turmeric
Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenol and active component of the turmeric plant, has been extensively researched and is of particular interest for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. According to a 2017 review of its effects on human health, Curcumin has been found to increase anti-oxidant enzymes and reduce markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, both of which are enhanced in many chronic diseases, including rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.
A 2016 meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing Curcumin efficacy in patients with arthritis, found that curcumin supplementation significantly reduced arthritis-related symptoms, and concluded that the evidence supports the efficacy of Curcumin in the treatment of arthritis. Further, more recentRCTs have since supported these findings.
Read more about Curcumin and Turmeric here.
Magnesium contributes to normal muscle function, maintenance of normal bones, a normal energy yielding metabolism and a reduction in tiredness and fatigue, according to the European Commission.
Known to mediate inflammation and pain signalling, magnesium is also involved in Vitamin D metabolism. Without adequate Magnesium, Vitamin D metabolism could be compromised.
Yet, a recent study found that 68% of men and 44% women with Osteoarthritis of the knee were consuming below the daily estimated average requirements for Magnesium. Researchers found that low magnesium intakes were strongly associated with increased knee pain and function, a correlation which remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, lifestyle factors and medication.
Read more about Magnesium here.
Manganese is an essential mineral that functions as a co-factor for several enzymes, including anti-oxidant enzymes. It contributes to a normal energy-yielding metabolism, the maintenance of normal bones, the normal formation of connective tissue and the protection of cells from oxidative stress, as recognised by the European Commission.
Selenium is an important mineral and co-factor for essential anti-oxidant enzymes. As such, the European Commission recognises selenium's contribution to the protection of cells from oxidative stress and to the normal functioning of the immune system.
Indeed, a recent systematic review of 13 randomised controlled trials demonstrated that selenium supplementation significantly increased anti-oxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity, while reducing markers of oxidative stress.
Read more about Selenium here.
Vitamin C is another critical anti-oxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune supporting functions. It is recognised by the European Commission as supporting normal collagen formation for healthy cartilage function and bones (both vital for health joints).
It also contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue, a normal energy-yielding metabolism and the normal function of the immune system, as per the EU authorised claims register.
Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis have been found to have reduced blood concentration of Vitamin C and other anti-oxidants, alongside increased markers of oxidative stress, when compared to healthy controls. However, after 12 weeks’supplementation of Vitamin C and other antioxidants, blood concentrations improved significantly with an associated reduction in markers of oxidative stress.
Vitamin D contributes to normal muscle function, the maintenance of normal bones and the normal function of the immune system, according to the European Commission.
In fact, Vitamin D has been found to regulate the physiological behaviour of over 36 different cell types in the body. It has been shown to down regulate pro-inflammatory compounds responsible for inflammation, and in Rheumatoid Arthritis in particular, serum Vitamin D is inversely associated with disease activity, according to a recent review article.
Read more about Vitamin D here.
Vitamin K2 contributes to the maintenance of normal bones, as recognised by the European Commission.
As reported in Arthritis Digest UK, Vitamin K2 specifically shows promise in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Evidence shows it may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer and osteoarthritis.
Studies suggest, as covered in an Arthritis Foundation article, vitamin K destroys inflammatory cells that contribute to rheumatoid arthritis.
A 2020 meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials looking at the combination of Vitamin K and Vitamin D supplementation on human bone quality, concluded that this combination leads to significantly increased total Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and reduced Osteocalcin levels (which are responsible for the breakdown of bones).
Read more about Vitamin K2 here.
As an antioxidant, Zinc contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress and to the normal functioning of the immune system, according to the European Commission. They also recognise its contributions in the maintenance of normal bones.
In fact, Zinc plays a key role in over 300 enzymes, and as highlighted above, a critical role in regulating the immune system. Yet, a recent systematic review of 62 studies identified a consistent pattern of zinc deficiency in patients with autoimmune conditions, including Rheumatoid Arthritis, when compared to healthy controls.
INGREDIENT LIST & EVIDENCE
Gut Health Supplement
Aloe Vera has been used for over 5000 years by Egyptian, Indian, Chinese and European cultures for a range of ailments. It contains over 70 biologically active components, known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-enhancing properties.
In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with Ulcerative Colitis (an inflammatory bowel condition), Aloe Vera supplementation led to a reduction in disease activity, and clinical improvement (including remission), in significantly more patients compared to a placebo.
Apple pectin is a prebiotic fibre that has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. In fact, a recent study found that, when compared to Inulin - one of the most widely recognized and researched prebiotic fibres - Apple pectin stimulated a significantly greater diversity of gut bacteria.
Prebiotics are type of fibres that remain intact through the digestive tract and are selectively fermented by gut bacteria, to confer health benefits to the host. Prebiotics have demonstrated wide ranging benefits in gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, cardiovascular disorders, immunity, and the enhanced GI absorption of certain minerals.
Bromelain is a group of enzymes found in the fruit and stem of the pineapple plant. It has attracted growing interest for its well-recognized anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, analgesic (pain-relieving) and wound healing properties.
A 2020 pilot study investigating Bromelain in combination with Boswellia Serrata, supplemented for 1-6 months, demonstrated significant improvements in quality of life (QoL) in patients with Osteoarthritis. This supports a previous study demonstrating significant improvements in pain, stiffness and physical function after 16-weeks’ Bromelain supplementation, in patients with knee Osteoarthritis.
Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs, and contains 120 bioactive compounds, of which 36 flavonoids. It is known for its anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and anti-cancer properties, among others.
A recent systematic review of randomized controlled trials also found significant improvements in Generalised Anxiety Disorder and sleep quality during Chamomile supplementation vs. placebo.
Fenugreek, a well-known plant, commonly used as a condiment or spice, is also known for its diverse range of phytochemicals, including saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids and more. It has been shown to confer anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-hyperlipidaemic benefits, according to a recent review.
It also contains galactomannan, a prebiotic fibre shown to enhance the growth of good bacteria, according to a recent study.
Ginger has been used for thousands of years for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumour and anti-ulcer properties. According to a recent systematic review, it has demonstrated significant improvements in pregnancy-related nausea, functional dyspepsia, gastrointestinal motility and gastric emptying, as well as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Ginger also exerts prebiotic potential to increase beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (including Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus spp), as demonstrated in a recent study. This makes for a perfect pairing with the Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus probiotics found in this gut health formulation.
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body, however, during catabolic conditions, such as sepsis, injury, surgery or intense physical activity, it can become conditionally essential, as its availability is compromised. It plays numerous important roles, including in energy metabolism, immunity, intestinal integrity, and the production of important proteins, antioxidants and neurotransmitters.
In the gastrointestinal tract specifically, glutamine is involved in the maintenance of normal intestinal tissue integrity, normal functioning of tight junctions (which create a protective barrier), down-regulation of inflammatory markers, and modulation of gut bacteria.
Liquorice root contains a number of bioactive constituents, including flavonoids, isoflavones and chalones, known for their anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumour and antioxidant capacities.
Liquorice has also been shown to reduce H.Pylori, gastric load and dyspepsia, according to a review of clinical studies using liquorice.
Marshmallow root has been used for centuries to soothe upper-gastrointestinal complaints such as an irritated mouth or throat, dry cough, and mild stomach or gut discomfort. It has been shown to form a protective layer and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects on inflamed mucosa, according to a recent study.
MSM is a naturally occurring compound found in a range of foods and drinks, including fruits, vegetables, grains, tea and coffee. It has been shown to modulate the immune response through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. These properties are also believed to have a protective effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa (lining).
In arthritis specifically, clinical trials have found MSM to be effective in reducing pain, stiffness and swelling. These findings were supported by a recent systematic review, confirming that MSM exerted large and clinically significant effects on the clinical function of arthritis patients, at least in the short term.
Milk Thistle has been used for centuries, traditionally for the treatment of liver and biliary tract disorders. More recently, Milk Thistle has also been investigated in several other therapeutic areas, showing significant improvements in blood lipid profile in dyslipideamia, and blood glucose control in diabetes, mediated through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, according to a recent review.
Silymarin, an active compound of milk thistle, rich in antioxidant flavonoids, has also shown anti-inflammatory activity in patients with knee osteoarthritis, when used alone, or in combination with NSAIDS.
Two recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the benefits of probiotic supplementation in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis, with very promising results: one showing significantly improved RA disease activity scores, the other demonstrating significant improvements in inflammatory markers.
Lactobacillus Casei, and Bifidobacteria are some of the most well-recognised and well researched probiotic species. In fact, a randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) of patients with Rheumatoid arthritis receiving L. Casei supplementation, showed significant improvements in inflammatory markers and RA symptoms scores after just 8 weeks.
Another two RCTs demonstrated significant improvements in patients with RA receiving a combination of 3 probiotics (Lactobacillus Casei, Bifidobacterium Bifidum, and Lactobacillus Acidophilus) for 8 weeks. The first showed significant improvements in disease activity scores of 28 joints (DAS-28), and CRP (a marker of inflammation), while the other found significant improvements in DAS-28, CRP, pain scores, insulin resistance, and antioxidant Glutathione.
Quercetin is a natural flavonoid, commonly found in fruits and vegetables, also known for its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
A review of its effects on gastrointestinal integrity demonstrated that Quercetin enhances gastrointestinal barrier function, by supporting the assembly and expression of tight junction proteins in the gut, leading to decreased intestinal permeability.
Slippery Elm, derived from the bark of the slippery elm tree (Ulmus rubra), has long been used by Native Americans to treat a range of ailments, including fevers, sore throats and wounds (even gunshot wounds). It contains mucilage, which when mixed with water, creates a gel-like substance, believed to be able to coat and protect the gastrointestinal lining.
It has also been found to exhibit prebiotic potential, by modulating the composition of the gut microbiome, and promoting the growth of bacterial strains known to benefit human health; including Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus species.
Stinging Nettle extract has been widely used since ancient times to treat various ailments. In fact, Ancient Egyptians used it to treat arthritis and lower back pain. It contains a range of vitamins and phytochemicals known for their antioxidant properties.
A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a supplement including stinging nettle extract (plus Vitamin E and fish oils) in patients with Osteoarthritis, found a significant reduction in the need for analgesics (pain relief) and NSAIDs after 3 months of treatment. It also reported significant improvements in Osteoarthritis symptoms, including pain, stiffness and function.
Zinc-L-Carnosine is a potent antioxidant that has been shown to protect the gastrointestinal mucosa, restore gastric lining, and improve GI disorders, according to a 2020 review. Indeed, based on their analysis, the authors concluded that “evidence supports the safety and efficacy of ZnC for the maintenance, prevention, and treatment of the mucosal lining and other epithelial tissues.”
INGREDIENT LIST & EVIDENCE
Energy Release Supplement
B vitamins play a critical role within our energy metabolism. All B vitamins, except for folate, are involved in at least one, or often several steps of the energy-production system within our body’s cells. That’s why it’s important to get enough of each B vitamin to ensure optimal functioning of our energy metabolism. A shortfall in any one of them will ultimately affect our internal energy production, with a negative impact on our health and wellbeing. Several B-vitamins, namely Pyridoxine, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12, are also crucial in regulating and transporting oxygen throughout the body, and their deficiencies lead to various forms of anaemia.
The European Commission has recognised this, by authorising the following health claims for B Vitamins.
A recent systematic review has
highlighted that vegan diets, which have gained popularity over the past decade, are associated with low intakes of Vitamins B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin) and B12, among others1. That’s why our Energy Release formula has been designed to be suitable for vegans.
Vitamin C is a critical anti-oxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune supporting functions. According to the EU health claims register, Vitamin contributes the reduction of tiredness and fatigue, to normal energy-yielding metabolism, and the normal function of the immune system, to name a few.
Several studies investigating Vitamin C supplementation in different populations have shown significant improvements vs. placebo on perceived fatigue scores and other symptoms2.
Vitamin C also enhances iron absorption, which is of particular benefit for those with low iron intakes, or on a plant-based diet, to avoid iron-deficiency
Our Energy Release formula contains the Ester-C form of Vitamin C, which is absorbed faster, lasts longer, and is better tolerated than Ascorbic Acid3.
Vitamin D contributes to normal muscle function, and the normal function of the immune system, according to the European Commission.
In fact, Vitamin D has been found to regulate the physiological behaviour of over 36 different cell types in the body. It’s important role in immunity can be demonstrated by the discovery of vitamin D receptors on almost all cells of the immune system4.
Read more about Vitamin D here.
According to the EU register, Magnesium contributes to normal muscle function, normal energy yielding metabolism, and a reduction in tiredness and fatigue, among others. Known to mediate inflammation and pain signalling, magnesium is also involved in Vitamin D metabolism. Without adequate Magnesium, Vitamin D metabolism could be compromised.
In a double-blind placebo controlled trial in College students, Magnesium supplementation significantly improved muscle soreness and perceived recovery after exercise5.
Our Energy Release formula contains Magnesium Glycinate, which is easily absorbed and well tolerated, and may offer calming effects in relation to anxiety and depression6.
You can read more about Magnesium here.
We are all too familiar with the importance of good gut health for overall health, both physical and mental. Yet stress has been shown to disrupt the balance of our gut microbiome, causing mental health problems like anxiety and depression.
A double blind placebo controlled trial of stressed adults supplemented with Lactobacillus Plantarum for 12 weeks showed significant improvements in stress and anxiety scores, as well as memory and cognition, versus a placebo7. These results were consistent across other studies using Lactobacillus Plantarum, while also demonstrating reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhancing serotonin (a.k.a “happy” hormone) pathways8-9.
Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea) is a plant from Europe and Asia with a long history of use in traditional medicine. It is considered an adaptogen, a natural substance that is believed to stimulate the body's resistance to physical, environmental, and emotional stressors.
A double-blind placebo controlled crossover study of healthy physicians on night duty supplemented with Rhodiola rosea for 2 weeks reported statistically significant improvements in their Fatigue Index, which measured mental fatigue, cognitive brain function, short-term memory, and concentration, among others10.
Rhodiola rosea’s positive effect on fatigue and stress-related symptoms has been observed in other studies, as recognized by a systematic review of clinical trials. It concludes that R. rosea may have beneficial effects on physical performance, mental performance, and even certain mental health conditions, and encourages further research11.
Gingko Biloba is one of the most ancient living trees, native to China, and has been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It contains high levels of flavonoids and terpenoids, compounds known for their powerful antioxidant potential.
A number of studies have investigated the benefits of Gingko Biloba extract on various conditions, with systematic reviews demonstrating improvements in anxiety, cognitive function and/or other behavioural & psychological symptoms, in older adults with or without
Dementia and Alzheimers12-14.
In younger adults with generalized anxiety, a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated significant improvements in anxiety scores, at two different dosages of G. Biloba supplementation. The group treated with the higher dose reported a 45% greater
reduction in symptoms of anxiety compared to the placebo group15.
Matcha Green Tea Powder
Matcha comes from the same plant as green tea, but because it’s made from the entire leaf, it is more concentrated intioxidants and other beneficial plant compounds. Matcha is particularly rich in potent natural antioxidants called catechins. In fact, estimates suggest the number of certain catechins in Matcha are up to 137 times greater than in other types of green tea.
In clinical trials, short and medium-term Matcha supplementation were shown to improve attention, memory, reaction time and anxiety in consumers and healthy students respectively16-17. It also contains caffeine and L-theanine, which according to research, can improve several aspects of brain function18-19.
Peruvian Maca Root
Maca is a Peruvian plant that grows exclusively in the central Andes at high altitude and has been cultivated for more than 2000 years. Its root has been used for centuries in the Andes to support nutrition and fertility
A review of randomized clinical trials concluded that maca shows favorable effects on energy, mood, anxiety and libido20. In post-menopausal women, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that 6-weeks supplementation with Maca root led to significant decreases in blood pressure and depression21. Other studies have also found significant improvements in menopausal symptoms with Maca supplementation versus placebo22-23.
Bilberry is the European relative of the North American blueberry, and has been used for medicinal purposes since the Middle Ages. Like most berries, bilberries are a
nutrient-rich fruit, and are onsidered one of the richest natural sources of anthocyanins
– a potent natural antioxidant. Bilberries have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while also reducing oxidative stress.
In a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial in an elderly population, 3 months’ supplementation led to significantly improved memory performance24. These findings were consistent with a recent systematic review, concluding that blueberries can improve some measures of cognitive performance, in particular short-term, long-term and spatial memory25.
Another study also found significant improvements in eye fatigue in office workers, with 8 weeks’ bilberry extract supplementation26.
INGREDIENT LIST & EVIDENCE
Collavegan - Vegan Collagen Supplement
Collagen is the most abundant protein found in the human body, produced naturally from birth. However, as we age, Collagen production slows and its quality reduces significantly, a process of depletion that starts from the ripe old age of just 25. Staggeringly, by the age of 50, our collagen levels have typically dropped by 50%.
Collagen can be obtained in the diet from animal sources - including fish. As a protein composed of amino acids, its main function is to provide structural support to the skin, nails, ligaments and tendons. A reduction in Collagen quantity or quality can therefore lead to wrinkle formation, and the loss of natural skin firmness and tone. It also compromises the skin’s natural barrier, resulting in dryness, breakouts and blemishes. A recent review of the evidence concluded that short and long-term use of oral collagen supplements provides promising results for wound healing and skin aging. Oral collagen supplements were also shown to increase skin elasticity and hydration.
Collagen cannot be absorbed in its native form, so it needs to be broken down into its amino acid components to be metabolised. Vollagen® is a plant-based complex of amino acids available in the same proportions as those found in Collagen, but offers several major advantages:
- The amino acids are already broken down and ready for the body to easily absorb
- Vollagen® is suitable for Vegans and Vegetarians, which is not the case for Collagen
- As Vollagen® is 100% plant-based, you don’t need to worry about which animal-based connective tissue is found in your supplement
- Most importantly, Vollagen® works: Independent consumer testing demonstrated great results within 60 days of use, including improved skin firmness, smoothness, hydration, and radiance, alongside a reduced appearance of lines and wrinkles, blemishes and dark circles.*
* Self-reported outcome measures from independent consumer testing involving 55 women aged 30-60 years, taking 1g Vollagen® per day for 60 days.
Hyaluronic Acid is a viscous slippery liquid substance naturally produced in the human body, and found primarily in eyes, joints and skin. It performs several functions:
- Retains moisture in our joints to keep them moving smoothly
- Provides hydration where needed: a ¼ teaspoon of hyaluronic acid can retain as much as 4.5 litres of water, hence why it is commonly used as an ingredient in moisturising creams and eye drops for treating dry skin and eyes
- Maintains skin flexibility and reduces the appearance of lines and wrinkles.
A scientific review of the evidence conducted in 2015 concluded that hyaluronic acid extracts are safe and efficacious for use in skin repair and wound healing.
Silica is one of the most abundant minerals available on the planet, found in sand and soil, water, plants, animals, and of course humans. Sourced primarily through diet, our body’s ability to absorb and metabolise Silica reduces as we age. With increasingly depleted soils from intensive farming, and a Western diet high in processed foods, the silica content of our daily diets is lower than it once was, putting us at risk of suboptimal intakes.
Accumulated evidence over the last 30 years points to the important role of Silica in bone formation and mineralisation, and to its critical role in collagen production and connective tissue health. As a result, Silica supports skin and joint structure, flexibility and elasticity, as well as the structural integrity of nails, hair, and skin.
Vitamin C is a critical anti-oxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune supporting functions. According to the GB nutrition and health claims register, Vitamin C contributes to normal collagen formation for the normal function of skin, and the protection of cells from oxidative stress (among other functions).
Healthy skin normally contains high concentrations of vitamin C, which supports collagen synthesis and antioxidant protection against UV damage. In fact, the vital role of vitamin C in skin health is most evident when vitamin C deficiency leads to the loss of important skin functions, including poor wound healing (associated with defective collagen formation), bruising and bleeding, which are common in vitamin-C-deficient individuals.
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin that is essential for the maintenance of healthy skin. As an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, it protects cells from oxidative damage, and from ultraviolet (UV) light damage. Thus playing important roles in photoprotection, preventing UV-induced free radical damage to skin. This is reflected by the GB register for nutrition and health claims, which states that Vitamin E contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress.
Biotin also contributes to the maintenance of normal skin according to the GB claims register. It does this through its role in energy production, breaking down fats to form fatty acids that nourish the skin. It hydrates the outer layer of skin and protects it from drying out. Several studies have indicated that biotin deficiency can result in reddening skin, dry skin, scaly skin rashes and skin infections.
Zinc is an essential mineral required in a number of cellular processes throughout the human body, and the GB health claims register specifically states that Zinc contributes to the maintenance of normal hair, skin and nails. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are shown to enhance skin repair function, while reducing redness and inflammation. This explains why Zinc is often used to relieve eczema, acne, irritation, dermatitis, and itchy or dry skin. Clinical evidence has also consistently proven its vital role in wound healing.
Copper is an anti-oxidant trace element that contributes to normal skin pigmentation and normal hair pigmentation according to the GB health claims register. Since copper supports collagen production, and collagen is important in maintaining skin firmness and elasticity, copper plays an important role in skin health and texture. It binds important peptides and transports them throughout the body to nourish the skin. Copper is also believed to boost the production of Hyaluronic acid, which as we know is critical in providing hydration and moisture to the skin and other systems.