The following information outlines evidence from scientific research on ingredients used in our products and, as such, is intended only for use by qualified healthcare professionals.
All our ingredients have been linked to specific health benefits in widely recognised, peer-received medical and research studies, details of which are provided. In most cases, our ingredients are authorised by the European Union in their register of food health and nutrition claims.
Our A-Z (Alpha Lipoic Acid to Zinc) guide below provides the health properties of all the ingredients used in our products, with links to further evidence and studies.
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)
Alpha Lipoic Acid is naturally present in the human body, as an essential co-factor for energy production, and is also recognised as a potent anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger.
A recent review of Alpha Lipoic Acid’s multiple functions and potential benefits concluded that it is a “potentially highly effective therapeutic agent for many conditions related with oxidative damage”.
Bioperine™ (Black Pepper Extract)
Piperine, the active ingredient in Bioperine is commonly used to increase absorption of various nutrients, including Curcumin, as evidenced in extensive clinical studies.
Several additional health benefits are also linked with Piperine, such as insulin resistance and anti-inflammatory benefits, especially in chronic diseases.
Boron has been proven, as outlined by Integrative Medicine journal, to be an important trace mineral because it is essential for the growth and maintenance of bones, beneficially impacts the body’s use of vitamin D, boosts magnesium absorption, reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers and raises levels of antioxidant enzymes.
In a 2017 pilot study of 80 patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Boron was found to be a useful adjuvant therapy, demonstrating significantly improved clinical scores and reduced anti-inflammatory markers, compared to a placebo.
According to an article by Versus Arthritis, Boswellia Serrata can prevent the production of inflammatory substances in the joints, with four randomised controlled trials suggesting it might have some beneficial effects in treating patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
In 2018, a meta-analysis of studies assessing the efficacy of dietary supplements in Osteoarthritis highlighted Boswellia Serrata, as well as Curcumin, as offering large and clinically important benefits, particularly in the short term.
Calcium contributes to the maintenance of normal bones, normal muscle function and normal energy-yielding metabolism as recognised by the European Commission.
Osteoporosis is a common complication of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), highlighted in a 2016 study, where the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in patients with RA than healthy controls. The study also found that routine supplementation of calcium and vitamin D decreased the risk of bone mineral density (BMD) loss, and concluded that it should be recommended for all patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
Coenzyme Q10 is a potent anti-oxidant compound naturally present in the body, that can be depleted in certain conditions.
In a 2020 systematic review of CoQ10 supplementation on oxidative stress, CoQ10 was shown to significantly increase key antioxidant enzymes and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), as well as reduce MDA, a key marker of oxidative stress.
In Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) specifically, a randomized controlled trial found that CoQ10 supplementation resulted in significant reductions in pro-inflammatory mediators and markers of oxidative stress.
Copper is an essential trace element and a transition metal needed as a co-factor for many anti-oxidant enzymes, but also plays a significant role in iron metabolism, anti-oxidant defense, and immunity, to name a few.
According to the European Commission’s authorised claims, Copper supports maintenance of normal connective tissues, contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism and to normal iron transport in the body.
Curcumin / Turmeric
Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenol and active component of the turmeric plant, has been extensively researched and is of particular interest for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. According to a 2017 review of its effects on human health, Curcumin has been found to increase anti-oxidant enzymes and reduce markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, both of which are enhanced in many chronic diseases, including rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.
A 2016 meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing Curcumin efficacy in patients with arthritis, found that curcumin supplementation significantly reduced arthritis-related symptoms, and concluded that the evidence supports the efficacy of Curcumin in the treatment of arthritis. Further, more recent RCTs have since supported these findings.
Read more about Curcumin and Turmeric here.
Magnesium contributes to normal muscle function, maintenance of normal bones, a normal energy yielding metabolism and a reduction in tiredness and fatigue, according to the European Commission.
Known to mediate inflammation and pain signalling, magnesium is also involved in Vitamin D metabolism. Without adequate Magnesium, Vitamin D metabolism could be compromised.
Yet, a recent study found that 68% of men and 44% women with Osteoarthritis of the knee were consuming below the daily estimated average requirements for Magnesium. Researchers found that low magnesium intakes were strongly associated with increased knee pain and function, a correlation which remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, lifestyle factors and medication.
Read more about Magnesium here.
Manganese is an essential mineral that functions as a co-factor for several enzymes, including anti-oxidant enzymes. It contributes to a normal energy-yielding metabolism, the maintenance of normal bones, the normal formation of connective tissue and the protection of cells from oxidative stress, as recognised by the European Commission.
Selenium is an important mineral and co-factor for essential anti-oxidant enzymes. As such, the European Commission recognises selenium's contribution to the protection of cells from oxidative stress and to the normal functioning of the immune system.
Indeed, a recent systematic review of 13 randomised controlled trials demonstrated that selenium supplementation significantly increased anti-oxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity, while reducing markers of oxidative stress.
Vitamin C is another critical anti-oxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune supporting functions. It is recognised by the European Commission as supporting normal collagen formation for healthy cartilage function and bones (both vital for health joints).
It also contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue, a normal energy-yielding metabolism and the normal function of the immune system, as per the EU authorised claims register.
Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis have been found to have reduced blood concentration of Vitamin C and other anti-oxidants, alongside increased markers of oxidative stress, when compared to healthy controls. However, after 12 weeks’supplementation of Vitamin C and other antioxidants, blood concentrations improved significantly with an associated reduction in markers of oxidative stress.
Vitamin D contributes to normal muscle function, the maintenance of normal bones and the normal function of the immune system, according to the European Commission.
In fact, Vitamin D has been found to regulate the physiological behaviour of over 36 different cell types in the body. It has been shown to down regulate pro-inflammatory compounds responsible for inflammation, and in Rheumatoid Arthritis in particular, serum Vitamin D is inversely associated with disease activity, according to a recent review article.
Read more about Vitamin D here.
Vitamin K2 contributes to the maintenance of normal bones, as recognised by the European Commission.
As reported in Arthritis Digest UK, Vitamin K2 specifically shows promise in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Evidence shows it may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer and osteoarthritis.
Studies suggest, as covered in an Arthritis Foundation article, vitamin K destroys inflammatory cells that contribute to rheumatoid arthritis.
A 2020 meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials looking at the combination of Vitamin K and Vitamin D supplementation on human bone quality, concluded that this combination leads to significantly increased total Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and reduced Osteocalcin levels (which are responsible for the breakdown of bones).
Read more about Vitamin K2 here.
As an antioxidant, Zinc contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress and to the normal functioning of the immune system, according to the European Commission. They also recognise its contributions in the maintenance of normal bones.
In fact, Zinc plays a key role in over 300 enzymes, and as highlighted above, a critical role in regulating the immune system. Yet, a recent systematic review of 62 studies identified a consistent pattern of zinc deficiency in patients with autoimmune conditions, including Rheumatoid Arthritis, when compared to healthy controls.