All our ingredients have been linked to specific health benefits in widely recognised, peer-received medical and research studies, details of which are provided. In most cases, our ingredients are authorised by the European Union in their register of food health and nutrition claims.
Our A-Z (Alpha Lipoic Acid to Zinc) guide below provides the health properties of all the ingredients used in our products, with links to further evidence and studies.
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) works with vitamins to help release energy, as recognised in evidence-based reviews of numerous scientific studies.
In 2011, the British Journal of Nutrition wrote that ALA exhibited anti-inflammatory effects on both acute and chronic inflammation, and that is has strong anti-oxidative potency.
Bioperine™ (Black Pepper Extract)
Bioperine™ aids the absorption of nutrients, as shown in extensive clinical studies conducted by its manufacturer.
Boron has been proven, as outlined by Integrative Medicine journal, to be an important trace mineral because it is essential for the growth and maintenance of bones, beneficially impacts the body’s use of vitamin D, boosts magnesium absorption, reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers and raises levels of antioxidant enzymes.
Boswellia serrata extract helps maintain joint health and supports joint flexibility, according to the EU.
According to an article by Versus Arthritis, it can prevent the production of inflammatory substances in the joints, with four random controlled trials suggesting it might have some beneficial effects in treating participants with osteoarthritis of the knee.
Calcium contributes to maintenance of normal bones, normal muscle function and normal energy-yielding metabolism as recognised by the EU.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is present, according to the EU, in energy-producing mitochondria cells.
A paper in the Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity journal claims Q10 may improve energy homeostasis, stress response, and antioxidant defense mechanisms, when combined with Alpha Lipoic Acid (as it is in our products).
Beneficial effects of CoQ10 supplementation on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis patients were identified in a trial covered in the Archives of Medical Research.
Copper supports maintenance of normal connective tissues, contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism and copper contributes to normal iron transport in the body, according to the EU.
Curcumin is recognised by the EU as helping control inflammatory responses and contributing to joint health.
Several recent studies show curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and modifies immune system responses. A 2010 clinical trial found that a turmeric supplement provided long-term improvement in pain and function in 100 patients with knee osteoarthritis. In a small 2012 pilot study, a curcumin product reduced joint pain and swelling in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis better than diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Magnesium contributes to normal muscle function, maintenance of normal bones, a normal energy yielding metabolism and a reduction in tiredness and fatigue, according to the EU.
Manganese contributes to a normal energy-yielding metabolism, the maintenance of normal bones, the normal formation of connective tissue and the protection of cells from oxidative stress, as recognised by the EU.
As an antioxidant, the EU recognises Selenium's contribution to the protection of cells from oxidative stress and contribution to the normal functioning of the immune system.
Vitamin C is recognised by the EU as supporting normal collagen formation for healthy cartilage function and bones (both vital for health joints).
It also contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue, a normal energy-yielding metabolism and the normal function of the immune system, as per the EU register.
Vitamin D contribute to normal muscle function, the maintenance of normal bones and the normal function of the immune system, according to the EU.
Read more about Vitamin D here.
Vitamin K2 contributes to maintenance of normal bones, as recognised by the EU.
As reported in Arthritis Digest UK, Vitamin K2 specifically shows promise in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Evidence shows it may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer and osteoarthritis.
Studies suggest, as covered in an Arthritis Foundation article, vitamin K destroys inflammatory cells that contribute to rheumatoid arthritis.
As an antioxidant, Zinc contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress and also contributes to the normal functioning of the immune system, according to the EU. They also recognise its contributions in the maintenance of normal bones.